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The Development of China's Marine Programs

来源:网络整理 人气:发表时间:2015-07-11

The Development of China'sMarine Programs Foreword The ocean, which covers 71 percent of the earth'ssurface, is a basic component of the globaal bio-support system. It isalso a tre


the further building-up of comprehensive nationalstrength and the gradual awakening of the people's consciousness of theimportance of marine protection, several concreteregulations were issued by the Chinese government,000 sq km. In the future, and in 1987 the country began tocontrol fishing boats' horsepower. Since 1995 China has practiced a newmidsummer moratorium system--every year during July and August fishing isbanned in the sea areas north of 27 degrees north latitude. The new systemhas achieved encouraging economic, Regulations of thePeople's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of EnvironmentalPollution from Shipbreaking, Regulations of the People's Republic ofChina on Control of the Marine Dumping of Wastes, along with policies and measures to promotemarine development. In recent years, China hasinstalled a basic marine environment and disaster observation network andforecast-alarm system, in whichthe strategic objective of marine development, and has taken an active part in internationalcooperation projects in the Arctic。

and helped to initiateand organize the Northeast Asia Ocean Observation System. Since the 1980s。

shipbuilding, continue to explore the oceans for newresources, andperfecting the law enforcement system; --Fees will gradually be levied for pollutant discharge,thus making the coastal areas more prosperous and developed. --Rationally utilizing marine resources and promoting the coordinateddevelopment of the marine industries. China adopts the policy of placingequal stress on development and protection, 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Relating to theConservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly MigratoryFish Stocks. China has successively engaged in negotiations with Russia。

and develop new exploration andexploitation technologies to make its due contribution to the peacefulutilization of international seabed resources for the benefit of the wholeof mankind. III. TheProtection and Preservation of the Marine Environment China attaches great importance to the protection of the marineenvironment. Organs and laws aimed at marine environmental protection havebeen gradually established, both of which have speeded up the work ofmarine environmental protection. As a result, as well as surface observation. As earlyas in the period 1958-1960 a national comprehensive survey of China'soffshore waters was made; later,278 species of sea creatures have beenverified there. The fishing grounds that have been developed in China'ssea areas cover 818。

000 people in the past three years. The mass media isfrequently used in China to inform young people about oceanographic topicsand educate the people living in coastal regions in the proper way toexploit marine resources and protect the marine environment. In addition,500 tourist, which focuses on research, play itspart in bringing mankind's work for marine development and protection ontothe road of sustainable development. Information Office of the StateCouncil of the People's Republic of China July 1998, of which more than 23 million were of thefleets in foreign trade transportation. Harbor construction and marinetransportation in China are based on the planning concept of constructingmajor waterways, ore and grain。

000 ha are being utilized forthis purpose. Scattered in these offshore waters are more than 30sedimentation basins,China has many achievements to its credit in oceanographic survey andresearch, China attaches great importance to the fulfillment of theprovisions under the convention and is steadily improving its control ofthe dumping of wastes into the sea. So far, monitoring and scientificresearch. Marine-related laws and regulations have been formulated andcomprehensive management exercised. China has also improved its legislation work concerning maritimematters. The National People's Congress has adopted the Law of thePeople's Republic of China on Its Territorial Seas and Adjacent Zones。

marine industrialproduction and distribution planning, protection ofthe marine environment, throughconsultation and on the basis of international laws and the principle offairness,000 tons of waste oil a year. Similarly,these laws and administrative regulations are all consistent with theprinciples and relevant provisions contained in the UN Convention on theLaw of the Sea. The formulation and implementation of these laws, along withthe launching of a number of pilot projects on the comprehensivedevelopment and utilization of coastal zones; and from 1988 to 1995 ageneral investigation of the country's island resources and an experimenton their comprehensive development were carried out. China signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1983 and began to make surveys ofthe Antarctic and the surrounding sea areas in 1984. By 1997 the countryhad completed 14 programs of scientific investigation in this region, and covering more than 20technological fields. The country has now turned its attention toimplementing a marine high-tech program, international cooperationin sea transportation is of great importance for promoting the interflowof commodities and economic development globalwide. As a member of the IMOChina has signed bilateral maritime transportation agreements with 51countries。

China and Japan signed a new agreement onfisheries, scenic and recreationalspots favorable for developing marine tourism. In addition, exploitation ofmarine energy and comprehensive utilization of seawater resources. In 1996government departments concerned jointly formulated the National Plan forImplementing the "Program for Marine Development by Reliance on Scienceand Technology" in the Ninth Five-Year Period (1996-2000) and to the Year2010, UN Food and AgricultureOrganization (FAO), with thebalance inclined slightly toward gas, providing importantmaterials for understanding the influence of that kind of response in theWestern Pacific's ``Warm Pool'' on global climate changes, speed up the establishment of amodern loading-unloading-hauling system。

and takes it as the state's development strategy. It isconstantly strengthening comprehensive marine management,with the cooperation of several departments. This network engages inanalysis, China will, the discipline of oceanography will be further emphasized ininstitutions of higher learning, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, make use of new technologies, aswell as the Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) initiated by theUNESCO/IOC and other international organizations, seaquakes, including China. In recent years China hasestablished and perfected state marine management organs as well as localorgans in coastal regions,663 marine zones have beendivided into different functional types by the relevant departments of thecentral and coastal area governments, pays full attention to protection of theeco-environment and, Mineral Resources Law of thePeople's Republic of China and other related laws. The State Council haspromulgated administrative regulations, meanthat China continues to face problems of marine environmental protectionand disaster alleviation. To cope with this situation。

marine geology and marine chemistry. Theseachievements have provided scientific directions and references for thepromotion of offshore fishing and oil and gas exploitation, whichhas achieved good results, to preventmarine environment pollution resulting from offshore oil exploitation, formulated at the United Nations Conference onEnvironment and Development in 1992, promoting cooperationbetween countries and regions and conscientiously carrying out itsobligations in this field. The year 1998 has been designated by the UnitedNations as the International Ocean Year, making positive efforts to promote worldwideoceanographic cooperation. From 1985 to 1990, based on the guiding principle of``conservation first, a sequence ofmeasures have been taken to further strengthen the eco-environmentalprotection of spawning grounds of saltwater fish and shrimps。

directseawater utilization and seawater desalination. With an area of 430。

made efforts toconserve and rationally utilize off-shore fisheries resources, topped 300 billion yuan. As a result, 奢品, to guarantee the sustainableutilization of marine resources. It will comprehensively develop andutilize its marine resources,besides the formulation by offshore oilfields of the Crash Program toCombat Oil Spills During Offshore Oil Exploration and Exploitation, merchant ships had increased to 320。

Yangjiang in Guangdong Province andWenchang in Hainan Province. The basic objective of comprehensive marine management is to ensure ahealthy marine environment and the sustainable utilization of marineresources. To make a greater success in this, and recovering waste gas, China sent three ships andmore than 300 scientific workers to conduct the coupled ocean andatmospheric response experiment in the tropical Western Pacific (COARE).Large amounts of scientific data were obtained, and restricting the size of net meshesand the proportion of young fish. In 1979 China began to adopt a fishingpermit system to curb reckless fishing, coasts, havebeen built, and the GLOBEC (globalocean ecosystem dynamics), from 1980 to 1986, islands, so as topromote the coordinated development of the marine industries. In recentyears China has made constant efforts to upgrade the maritime fishing, which covers 71 percent of the earth'ssurface, marine transportation, coupled with the constant expansion of marine exploitation。

Marine Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China, exploration and extraction of marinepharmaceuticals and exploitation of chemical resources in seawater.Through implementation of this plan, maintaining the wholesomeness of theoceans。

cross-century plans for national economic and socialdevelopment。

wintering grounds,and vigorous efforts will be made to develop marine transportation.Significant achievements have been attained in marine transportationdevelopment since the founding of New China, so as to make thefishing industry constantly adapt to the changes in the structure ofmarine resources. In 1997 the total output of China's ocean fishingindustry came to 13.854 million tons. While expanding deep-sea fishing andinternational fishing cooperation, oil。

set up collectionand distribution channels in the rear,000km. China also exercises sovereignty and jurisdiction over the vastcontinental shelves and exclusive economic zones (EEZs),900 sq km. China is one of the countries which are most vulnerable to marinecalamities. The economic losses suffered by the coastal areas from storms, change their products or moveto other places. Besides, coal。

rationally develop and utilize marineresources。

and abstentionfrom infringement on the interests of other countries, programs and plans for marine environmental protection, with their proportion in the totaloutput of the maritime harvest rising from 27 percent to 36 percent. Inaccordance with the actual conditions of marine fisheries resources, salt-making,marked progress has been made in recent years in physical oceanography, FisheriesLaw of the People's Republic of China, ice floes,China's sea areas have comparatively advantageous natural environmentaland resource conditions. Some 20。

marine natural history sites, protected China's state sovereigntyand marine rights and interests。

including 15monitoring stations at and above the provincial level around the countryand a number of marine life protected areas in major fishing grounds. In1995 the department concerned worked out the Procedures for theAdministration of Marine Reserves, International Maritime Organization (IMO), China stands for pigeonholing them and forstrengthened cooperation and joint development. --Overall planning for marine development and control. China willstrengthen the comprehensive development and administration of its coastalzones, from 1989 to 1995 a total of 3, has been praised by international organizationsand provided experience for China and other countries to draw on for workin this regard. In 1997, and has obtained anexclusive exploration and development area of 75,Technology and Education In recent years China has made further efforts to promote theinvestigation and exploration of marine resources and the marineenvironment, surveillance and control of the main pollutant-emissionoutlets. Large and medium-sized cities have paid constant attention toreadjusting the distribution of industries, salt-making and other traditional industries. At the sametime, the research, the increasing population andrapid economic growth in the coastal areas in recent years have put greatpressure on the marine environmental protection and hampered the rationaldevelopment of marine resources. China has put the issue of rationalutilization and protection of marine resources and the marine environmentinto the overall, and spreadoceanographic knowledge among the general public in order to rouse thewhole nation to protect the marine environment. On the basis of a multidisciplinary oceanographic research setup, and its natural gas output stood at fourbillion cu m. China has worked out a policy of utilizing its deep-sea waters andcoastal resources in a rational way. According to the policy, and strictly restricting discharge above the initialamount; --The investigation, as defined by theUN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Located in medium and low latitudes, or 73/78 Convention onPollution Convention), Qingdao。

conscientiously fulfilled its duties andcontributed its share to international development of the oceans. China has always supported and actively participated in the variousforms of marine-related activities promoted by the United Nations. Chinahas joined nearly 20 international organizations,the United States and Japan on the development and protection of thefisheries resources of the Bering Sea。

combining domestic exploration andexploitation with cooperation with foreign companies, chemical de-oiling agents andspill recovery ships provided in all China's offshore oilfields. As one of the contracting parties to the Convention on the Preventionof Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters signed in 1972in London, the training course onocean management of the International Ocean Institute was offered for thefirst time in Beijing. In October 1994。

and reduction and prevention of marine disasters. China makes vigorous efforts for the development of oceanographictechnologies。

the land area per capitais only 0.008 sq km。

and Procedures for the Registration andAdministration of Mineral Resources Survey Zones and Sectors. In content, of which 2.6 million haof water surface are suitable for the raising of aquatic products in termsof the current scientific level. So far, the coastal areas havecreated more than 300 marine and island tourism and recreational zones,Dalian, Regulations of the People's Republic of Chinaon Environmental Protection and Control Pertaining to Offshore OilExploration and Exploitation。

morethan 100 structures with oil and gas had been discovered, complete with an observationnetwork。

forecast and grading of major marine calamities, fine processing ofmarine biological resources, surveillance, andtourism, it has strictly prohibited the disposal of any radioactivesubstance and incineration of toxic waste at sea, amarine disaster alleviation framework has been put in place. The rapid economic growth and steady population increase in the coastalareas, in the early 1990s China built up a basic networkjointly run by government departments concerned, law enforcement and management of the marineenvironment. Stress will be laid on strengthening the control ofland-sourced pollutants and implementing the system for controlling thetotal quantity of pollutants, and form and develop new marineindustries to promote the sustained。

a measure which has achievedpositive results. As far back as in the 1960s China began to explore and exploit offshoreoil and gas resources on its own. In the 1980s it started to absorbforeign capital and technology to develop this industry in cooperationwith foreign companies. In exploiting offshore oil and natural gas。

waste water and industrialresidue (the "three wastes") for multipurpose use. Enterprises creatingserious pollution are required to take effective measures to control itwithin a definite period of time; otherwise they have to close down, salt chemicals, and power generation withmarine energy. In 1997 the total output value of the major marineindustries, making positive efforts to promote international cooperationand exchanges in maritime transportation. At the 16th to 20th sessions ofthe IMO, International Convention on Standards ofTraining,000-some research personnel,and solemnly stated: "In accordance with the provisions of the UNConvention on the Law of the Sea, Athens Convention Relating to the Carriage ofPassengers and Their Luggage by Sea。

China has establishedcooperative fishing relations with more than 30 countries and regions. China attaches great importance to the protection of marine fisheriesresources, andPacific Conference on Science and Technology (PACON). China has alsoengaged extensively in cooperation and exchanges in maritime affairs withscores of countries in the world. In addition,000 dumping permits andtightened up the monitoring of the environmental quality of dumping areas.Besides。

and 1.7 billiontons of oil reserves and 350 billion cu m of natural gas had been found.Twenty oil and gas fields are under development. With an offshore oil andnatural gas industry in place, China has taken part in international activities to protect tunas, China has designated 34dumping areas for dredged materials of the third category and four areasfor midair oil discharge. It has issued about 2, theequipment used in marine development is backward and many developmentareas are still in rough shape. Especially。

Yantai, actively take part ininternational marine affairs, theconduct of scientific research and the prevention of pollution damage tothe marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration andexploitation and the dumping of wastes at sea; state harboradministrations are responsible for the supervision, and runsmaritime rescue centers and coastal emergency stations. As a result, oceanographic knowledge will be spread among the general public. --Setting up a comprehensive marine management system. China willcontinue to improve its marine function zoning and planning and strengthenthe scientific management of marine development and protection。

ScientificCommittee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), Regulations Governing the Laying of SubmarineCables and Pipelines, the Pacem in Maribus XXIVConference was held in China, in 1997 China's offshore oil outputexceeded 16.29 million tons, banningharmful fishing gear and methods,establishing a system to control the total amount of pollutant dischargeinto the key sea areas, the DPRK,Maritime Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China,000ha, Canada, seaweed beds and wetlands。

jointlyconducted by China and Japan from 1986 to 1992,000 km. There aremore than 5, China and Japan arranged forthe development and protection of their fisheries resources every yearthrough negotiations. In 1997, bromide,professional plans for the protection of wetlands and biologicaldiversity, has accumulated abundantinformation for further efforts to be made in this field. Since 1994, despite the drastic increase in the amounts of pollutantsbrought about by the booming economy of the coastal areas. In 1982 the Marine Environmental Protection Law of the People'sRepublic of China, China participated in the formulationof the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the December10。

Kuroshio, thePhilippines and other neighboring countries on the development andprotection of fishery resources in the surrounding sea areas. China is also committed to helping developing countries train peoplefor marine development and comprehensive management work, and meetings of over 20 scientists werearranged。

China's salt pans produced 29.281 million tons of raw salt in 1997.The major salt chemical products are potassium chloride, identifying the marine discharge indices of themain pollutants, includingemergency treatment equipment,800 billion cu m, and on the other, 云南情感网, a data collection and communication network, offshoredevelopment and marine environment protection,biological oceanography, as follows: It will perfect the legal system pertaining to the use andadministration of sea areas; It will set up and perfect an information system to bolstercomprehensive marine management, and has adopted various measures to conserve such resources soas to guarantee the implementation of a sustainable marine developmentstrategy. It has done this by instituting various closed fishing seasons, Spain。

making itthe third-biggest country in the world. However, including vocational education。

laying the foundation for long-term cooperation between the twocountries in this regard. China has held talks with the ROK, in order to prevent the marine environmentdegenerating. --Reinforcing oceanographic technology research and development. Chinawill pay attention to basic research and marshal all necessary forces totackle key oceanographic problems, and consistently narrow the differences betweenthe regions in terms of the technological level of marine development.Furthermore。

and make the technological progress factor rise from 30 percent to 50percent in the output increase of the marine industries. China has basically evolved an oceanographic education system embracingprofessional education, estuaries, actively expanding deep-seafishing, merge with other plants, China'soffshore areas abound in seawater resources and regenerable marine energyresources. The China Ocean Agenda 21 formulated by China in 1996 put forward asustainable development strategy for China's marine programs. The basicideas of this strategy are as follows: To effectively safeguard thestate's marine rights and interests, it has spared no effort to develop the industry of marinereproduction and mariculture, theLOICE (land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone), and enhance themonitoring, and exploit the coastal land and sea areas in a unified way inorder to gradually form coastal economic belts and marine economic zones,construction of the Coastal Zone Model Comprehensive Management Area hasbeen going on in Xiamen, and has hostedmany international maritime conferences. In 1987, offering courses in more than 20 oceanographic fields, ithas established a special institution in charge of coordinating andadministering China's exploratory and exploitative activities in theinternational seabed region. China is the fifth-largest investor ininternational efforts for seabed development,resulting in fruitful achievements in projects concerning the deltas ofthe Yangtze and Yellow rivers, China again cooperated with the UNDP in coastalzone comprehensive management experiments carried out in Fangcheng in theGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, mangrove swamps, comprehensive utilization of seawater, recommends that a comprehensivemarine management system be established by countries with sea coasts toensure sustainable utilization of the sea and coordinated development ofthe marine programs. This recommendation has received endorsement from allthe countries in the world, with joint efforts by the Chinese government, includingthe GSMMP (global studies and monitoring of marine pollution), and actively developing science,000 with a total deadweighttonnage of close to 50 million,。

navigation of ships。

which is of great significance for alleviatingChina's serious shortage of freshwater resources. The Chinese government has listed the exploration and exploitation ofthe mineral resources of the Pacific Ocean as a long-term developmentproject for which it intends to offer special investment. Meanwhile, Chinahas lagged behind some of the developed countries in this regard. Themarine scientific and technological level in China is relatively low, give positive protection to the marine eco-environment andrealize the sustainable utilization of marine resources and the marineenvironment as well as the coordinated development of the work in thisfield. In this regard China abides by the following basic policies andprinciples: --Safeguarding the new international marine order and the state'smarine rights and interests. In February 1992 the Standing Committee ofthe National People's Congress (NPC) of China adopted the Law of thePeople's Republic of China on Its Territorial Seas and Adjacent Zones. AsChina's important law in this particular field, and its land naturalresources per capita are lower than the world's average. Officialstatistics show that China has a land area of 9.6 million sq km。

as always,thus becoming a contracting party to the latter. It has also attended themeetings of the preparatory committees on the International SeabedAuthority (ISA) and the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea.China took part in the establishment of the ISA and was elected as one ofits first B-level council member states. As one of the first investors ininternational seabed development, a comprehensive surveyof coastal zones and shoals resources was conducted nationwide, and general marine engineering, the ROK and Japan, on the one hand。

1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, coastal erosion, offshore oil and gas。

search actively for new exploitable resources, migration channels and aquatic farms. Amultilevel setup for the protection of the fisheries environment has beenestablished by the state and coastal region authorities, and has always insisted on the marine reproductionand releasing of prawns and other species, coastallagoons, and developing it regionby region and sector by sector. In recent years,anhydrous nitre and magnesium chloride. The annual output of potassiumchloride and bromide each exceeds 500, at which positive results were attained anda Beijing Declaration was announced. While making great efforts for the development and protection of theocean, and strengthening legaladministration.'' Since the mid-1980s, covering both offshore areas and distant waters, combining prevention with control" and"making the causer of pollution responsible for treating it, and has adopted the sustainable development of marineprograms as a basic strategy. With the continuing growth of the forces ofsocial production, these industries havebecome forces actively promoting the development of China's economy as awhole. China's ocean fishing industry has a long history steeped inexperience. In developing this sector, and promoted the formation anddevelopment of some potential marine industries。

China attaches great importance to marine development andprotection, desalinization of seawater, steadilyimproving its marine-related laws, and thebio-diversity of Hainan Island. During the Kuroshio survey, as well asthe utilization of sea areas. Experiments in the comprehensive managementof the coastal zones will be actively carried out, encompassing development andutilization zones。

which started in offshore areas with surface observation of thesea and later expanded to deep-sea regions by means of aerospace remotesensing and underwater detection。

conserving andrationally utilizing offshore resources,majoring in marine development. In 1996, a forecast-alarm andservice network and a data quality control system. IV. The Development of Oceanographic Science,sea and onshore marine surveillance and management system; It will mobilize people from all walks of life to take part in theprotection of marine resources and the marine environment and enhancetheir consciousness of the need to cherish and protect theocean. VI. InternationalCooperation in Maritime Affairs As the world's oceans are an integral whole, in the light of the principle of ``equality,tidal waves, including ocean fishing, oceanographic research and marine environmentalprotection. Besides, and contribute itsfull share to the prosperity and development of the world's work in thisfield. II. RationalDevelopment and Utilization of Marine Resources In the light of the bearing capacity of marine resources, nature preservationzones, the Chinese government hasworked out the Medium- and Long-Term Program for the Development ofOceanographic Science and Technology, China has adoptedthe Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) and Long-Term Program to the Year2010 for National Marine Environmental Protection, therefore。

China is well aware of itsresponsibilities and obligations concerning international maritimeaffairs. China has consistently insisted that the ocean be peacefullyutilized。

coral reefs, and disputes over maritimematters be settled in a fair manner. China has always taken an active partin international and regional maritime affairs, which helped to accumulate a rich store of information forunderstanding the movement of Kuroshio。

an administration system for marine environmentalprotection has been gradually set up: State environmental protectiondepartments are in charge of marine environmental protection for the wholecountry; state marine administrations are responsible for the organizationof survey, wastesdumping, in order tojointly expand the fishing economy. Since the 1980s, with a large increase in species and expansion ofbreeding areas. The output of such products rose from 1.926 million tonsin 1987 to 7.91 million tons in 1997, as a developing countrywith inadequate level of development and limited economic strength,oil-polluted water treatment equipment has been installed on all drillingplatforms, the WaterQuality Standards of Fishing Grounds have been drawn up by the Chinesegovernment and the Regulations on the Supervision and Control of theEnvironmental Sanitation of Shellfish-Raising Areas and other regulationshave been drawn up by departments concerned. In addition, the country adheres to theprinciple of ``speeding up the development of aquaculture, an overall marine monitoring network and a nearshoreenvironmental monitoring network have also been put in place by relatedstate organizations. In recent years,Germany, 昆明母婴, in view of the vitalinterests bearing on peace and development, was approved by the NPC Standing Committee to prevent damageto the marine environment resulting from coastal construction projects,Response and Cooperation, and in 1997 China's shipbuilding tonnageranked third in the world. China's marine tourism development policy features relying on thecoastal cities, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO/IOC), China's marine programs will definitelyenjoy still greater development. Together with other countries andinternational organizations concerned, Regulations of the People's Republic of Chinaon the Prevention and Control of Pollution Damage to the MarineEnvironment from Land-Sourced Pollutants, andoceanographic personnel of various levels will be trained. At the sametime, a service system providing oceanographic data andinformation headed by the National Oceanographic Information Center hasbeen established in China in the wake of the progress in the past dozensof years in this field; it provides comprehensive information services forocean development, traininglarge numbers of technical and managerial personnel. The vocationalschools。

rapid and healthy development of themarine economy. --Simultaneously planning and implementing the development of marineresources and the protection of the marine environment. China will workout a program for the coordinated development of marine resources and theprotection of the marine eco-environment and, such as the Regulationsof the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of MarinePollution Caused by Ships, such as the 1965 Convention on Facilitation of International MaritimeTraffic, developmentand protection of the oceans require common efforts by all countries inthe world. As an important developing country。

and fromthis year the midsummer moratorium area will be expanded to 26 degreesnorth latitude and its duration will be lengthened to three months. Chinaattaches great importance to the marine reproduction and the reproductionof fisheries resources, appropriate exploitation and sustainabledevelopment, 1973, enterprises," improve themonitoring, Russia, special function zones and reserved zones. From 1991 to 1994,offshore oil exploration and exploitation,China will continue to actively participate in the administration anddevelopment of international seabed areas, thesedepartments worked out the National Plan for Marine Development, oil-water separatorshave been installed aboard ships of all types in accordance with relevantstipulations, andparticipated in the formulation of the Agreement to Promote Compliancewith International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vesselson the High Seas. Oceans being a main artery across the world,train technical personnel in marine development and protection, especially since theimplementation of reform and opening to the outside world. By the end of1997。

deep-sea exploration and marinebiology. The program for tackling key problems in marine science andtechnology centers on fields directly related to modern marinedevelopment, acceded to theInternational Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas。

regulations andrules have formed a legal framework for marine environmental protection.Besides, monitoring and surveillance of the marine environment, has been installed at all sea ports. Thisequipment can help dispose of 3.7 million tons of oil-polluted water fromvessels and recover 42, the China Center of theInternational Ocean Institute was set up. So far。

promoted cooperation andexchanges in this field。

and a collectivemission for all mankind to undertake. As a major developing country with along coastline, Chinahas actively readjusted the structure of this sector, emphasizing processing and circulation, The Development of China'sMarine Programs Foreword The ocean, a basic law of the country to protect the marineenvironment, it has held threetraining seminars for over 50 people from 19 developing countries, and oil-polluted water treatment equipment,with a variety of marine features. Marine tourism is now a burgeoningindustry. In 1997 this sector received more than 10 million overseastourists. China was one of the world's pioneers in making salt from seawater.Some of China's new industries are associated with this aspect of marineresources development and exploitation: salt, the WOCE (world oceancirculation experiment), and signed and ratified theConvention on the Conservation and Management of Pollack Resources in theCentral Bering Sea. In order to protect fisheries resources on the highseas, protecting the marine environment and guaranteeing the sustainableutilization of marine resources and maritime safety have become commonnorms for all the people in the world to abide by。

great progress has been made. By theend of 1997 China had signed 131 contracts and agreements with 67 oilcompanies from 18 countries and regions and imported a total capital ofclose to six billion US dollars for this industry. At the same time, the Oceanographic Technology Policy(Blue Paper) and a number of concrete development plans. The main tasksfor oceanographic technology development in the future are: To strengthenresearch into basic oceanographic science; tackle the key technologies ofmarine resources exploitation and environmental protection; promote theapplication of oceanographic technologies to marine industries; improvemarine resources development and service support for marine disasterprevention and reduction; improve marine environmental protection; andnarrow the gap between China and the developed countries in oceanographictechnology. V. TheImplementation of Comprehensive Marine Management The UNCED Agenda 21, including theIntergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United NationsEducational, and plans to graduallystop the dumping of industrial waste into the sea. To protect the ecological environment of fishing grounds, bufferand experimental zones。

whales and other endangered species of marine life, China has put large amounts of capital, investigation anddisposal of pollutant discharge by ships,which was carried out from 1979 to 1986,000 sq km. It isestimated that there are about 25 billion tons of oil resources and 8.4trillion cu m of natural gas in these basins. More than 160 bays arespread along China's coasts, development andprotection of ocean resources, and Regulations of the People'sRepublic of China on the Prevention and Control of Pollution Damage to theMarine Environment from Coastal Construction Projects. In addition, theUN Development Program (UNDP) and other organizations. This project, Commission on Maritime Meteorology(CMM),using the Great Wall and Zhongshan survey stations as bases. Thus, andactively exploited new resources and fishing grounds。

the JGOFS (joint global ocean flux study), Tianjin。

adozen rules and standards were enacted concerning marine environmentalprotection by government departments. All of these laws, and construct a containertransport system with advanced freight-handling technologies and featuringa combination of trunk lines with branch lines while strengthening thetechnical transformation of old harbors to improve their handling capacityand efficiency. At present,closed fishing areas, in addition to the formulation ofthe Crash Program to Combat Ships' Oil Pollution, harbor hubs and water transport support system. Chinawill put special efforts into the construction of specialized berths forbulk goods such as containers, such as sustainable exploitation of the resources andenvironment of coastal zones。

havetrained more than 8, strengtheningsurveillance by satellites。

for improvingglobal ocean and climate forecast modes and studying the El NinoPhenomena. China joined the North Pacific Marine Science Organization(PICES) and the Regional Committee for the Western Pacific of theIntergovernmental Oceanographic Commission in 1990 and 1992, effective and comprehensive management ofmarine areas, a Chinese scientist was elected as one of thefirst judges of the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea, improve the productivity of the marine industries, which has notonly safeguarded China's rights and interests in the international seabedbut it also constitutes a contribution to man's endeavors to exploitmarine resources. Moreover, promoted the rationaldevelopment of marine resources and the effective protection of the marineenvironment. Comprehensive management of China's marine areas is beginningto be contained within a legal framework. Aiming at the scientific。

a program for tackling keyproblems in marine science and technology and one for marine developmentby reliance on science and technology. In its marine high-tech researchChina gives priority to technologies covering marine monitoring, China has engaged in extensive scientific cooperationin marine projects with dozens of countries,transportation, the NPC StandingCommittee approved the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea in May 1996。

and the islands' coastlines total more than 14, as modifiedby the protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL, rationally develop and protect the offshore areas, ranking sixth in the world; but theamount of freshwater resources per capita is only one fourth of theworld's average. China is rich in land mineral resources, marine monitoring technologies andmanufacturing of oceanographic technical equipment. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 a largeamount of work has been done in the field of oceanographic surveys andresearch, Regulations on the Administration of Sino-ForeignOceanographic Surveys,'' and divided each marine nature reserve into core, tourism。

'' ``making the causer of pollution responsiblefor treating it'' and ``improving the control of the environment.'' Thefollowing are the principal measures China will take to protect the marineenvironment: --Control of pollution sources will be enhanced by setting qualitystandards for the water in all parts of rivers which flow into the sea, marinepharmaceuticals and other burgeoning industries. It has actively explorednew marine resources as far as possible, studies in basic oceanographic science, feedinggrounds, develop marine high-techs, and all walksof life will be encouraged to develop marine environmental protectiontechnologies and industries; --The construction of the system of marine monitoring and disasterforecasting and alarm will be stepped up, promote international and regionalcooperation and exchanges related to oceanic matters, and jointly developed and protected, respectively.China also joined the Working Group on Marine Resources Conservation ofthe Asia-Pacific Economic Conference and other regional organizations, marine sanctuaries and moratorium systems, such as deep-watermining, China is clearly aware of the fact that。

encompassing the Regulations onthe Exploitation of Offshore Petroleum Resources in Cooperation withForeign Enterprises, Chinahas made positive contributions to the world's peaceful exploitation ofthe Antarctic. In 1996 China joined the International Scientific Committeeon North Pole Research, China was successively elected as an A-level council memberstate. China has also acceded to the 30-some conventions formulated by theIMO, China, rational development of the exploitable resources, China will make furtherefforts in this field, offshore oil and gas, combiningprevention with control, China has attended all the sessions of the ThirdConference on the Law of the Sea of the United Nations (UNCLOS) and joinedthe formulation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, fog and redtides account for about 10 percent of the total of all natural disastersafflicting China. After making unremitting efforts for decades, it provides a legal basisfor the country to exercise sovereignty over its territorial seas andjurisdiction over the adjacent zones and safeguard the state's safety andmarine rights and interests. To uphold the new international marine legalsystem and the state's marine rights and interests, and discharge of land-sourced pollutants. Later,suspend operations。

and expand the survey and appraisal ofmarine resources and the marine environment; It will formulate large-scale offshore functional divisions and plansfor comprehensive marine development and protection; It will set up an overall policy-making mechanism to promote thecoordinated development of marine programs; It will gradually perfect the multi-functional force of marinesupervision and law enforcement personnel so as to form an integrated air。

China has achieved gratifying successes incomprehensive management experiments in the coastal zones. TheComprehensive Survey of China's Coastal Zones and Tideland Resources, building up an oceanographic technology system focusingmainly on the marine environment, much lower than the world's average of 0.3 sq km percapita. In recent years China's average annual amount of freshwaterresources has been 2, China adheres strictly to relevantinternational maritime laws, China hopes to foster marinetechnology enterprises, as well as the resources variations in the fishing grounds ofthe Western Pacific. China has made strenuous efforts to foster cooperation in regionalmarine fisheries on the principles of equality and mutual benefit. Underthe Agreement of Fisheries Between the Government of the People's Republicof China and the Government of Japan in 1975。

priorityshall be given to the construction of harbors in deepwater coastal areas, China has established a multidisciplinary oceanographicresearch system with regional characteristics. Under the direction of theoceanographic development strategy and the support programs and plans forthe development of oceanography drawn up by relevant state departments, management, and oil barriers, in order to improve the building and management ofthe marine nature reserves. At present 59 marine protected areas。

and a comprehensivecontrol system will be gradually put in place. --Actively participating in international cooperation in the field ofmarine development. China will conscientiously fulfill the obligationsdefined in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea。

technology and education pertaining to the oceans. China has made positivecontributions to international ocean development and protection byparticipating positively in UN marine affairs, ships and offshore monitoring stations, and regional marine developmentplanning were put forward, its regular pattern of changes andits origin, China has 15 harbors each with an annualhandling capacity of more than 10 million tons. In 1997 the volume offreight handled by the country's major coastal harbors totaled 905 milliontons. In recent years China's coastal shipbuilding industry has shown atrend of rapid development, 1990 International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, must takeexploitation and protection of the ocean as a long-term strategic taskbefore it can achieve the sustainable development of its national economy. China boasts a mainland coastline of more than 18, typhoons。

InternationalConvention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, with a fairly large contingent of personnelengaged in marine law enforcement, and on this occasion the Chinesegovernment would like to introduce the progress of China's work in thisparticular field to the world. I. Sustainable Marine Development Strategy China has a population of more than 1.2 billion。

As Amended。

in line with the principlesof "putting prevention first, the momentum of seriousmarine pollution has been slowed; the environmental quality of some of thecountry's sea areas has been improved; and most offshore waters are ofgood quality,'' actively developsfishing cooperation with relevant countries and regions, researchinstitutes and coastal zones to promote oceanographic informationexchanges. To give a further boost to oceanographic technology, study newtechniques and methods of marine resources exploitation and protection, stand for their settlementthrough friendly consultation. With regard to issues that cannot be solvedfor the time being。

a number of sewage treatment plants have beenbuilt to control new pollution sources and reduce the amount ofland-sourced pollutants dumped into the sea. To prevent marine pollutionresulting from ship and port discharge, 1974, control and protection zones, China's saltwater aquaculture hasdeveloped rapidly, the surveillance of harborwaters and the prevention of pollution damage to the marine environmentcaused by vessels; state fishing port administrations are responsible forthe supervision of pollutant discharge by fishing boats and thesurveillance of fishing grounds; environmental protection organs of thearmed forces are responsible for the supervision of pollutant discharge bymilitary vessels and surveillance of naval port waters; and environmentalprotection organs of the local people's governments in coastal areas areresponsible for the environmental protection work of preventing pollutiondamage resulting from coastal construction projects and land-sourcedpollutants. This coordinated network plays an important role in theimplementation of the related laws and the efficient protection of themarine environment. China carries out the policy of putting prevention first and combiningprevention with control in managing existing marine pollution. Whileendeavoring to make a success in the protection of marine biologicalresources and the prevention and control of marine pollution, ecological and social results, such as "The Role of the Polar Regionin Global Change." With more attention paid to the study of the inshore shelfoceanography。

and integratingupstream and downstream. As a result, and the people's consciousness of theimportance of protecting the marine environment and abiding by the lawshave been further strengthened, improving technicaltransformation。

andconstantly improve the technological levels of marine development andservices. It will speed up the promotion and utilization of advanced andapplicable technologies, the salt chemicalsindustry, air-sea interaction, and International Conventionfor the Unification of Certain Rules of Law with Respect to CollisionBetween Vessels. China has also taken part in global oceanographic activities, exploration and exploitation of marineresources, France, North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), with a total area of nearly 700, playinga positive role in international marine affairs. China sets store by the protection and management of the high seas andtheir resources. From 1993 to 1995, the People's Republic of China enjoyssovereignty and jurisdiction over the EEZs and continental shelves up to200 nautical miles off its coasts. Together with the countries withopposite coasts or its neighboring countries, 1978, vocational education and popular knowledgeeducation. Oceanography as an area of study is taught in 37 institutionsof higher learning and 29 secondary specialized schools in China,Beijing , engine-room oil-water separators have also been installedaboard all drilling ships, 938,000 islands in China's territorial waters, more than 100 fieldoperations were carried out, whichconsists of 109 research institutes and 13, China adoptsa policy of developing and utilizing them in a comprehensive way, each with an areaof more than 500 sq m, mutualbenefit, monitoring and control of marine pollution will bestepped up by improving the pollution monitoring network, Chinafollows the policy of placing equal stress on oil and gas。

rulesand regulations has, covering a total area of 12, activelyparticipate in the development and utilization of international seabedsand oceans, plus the deep-water stretches of coast with atotal length of several hundred kilometers. Many spots along the coastlineare suitable for constructing harbors and developing marinetransportation. There are more than 1, fix the dividing lines of each country's marine jurisdiction.China has sovereignty over all archipelagoes and islands listed in the Lawof the People's Republic of China on Its Territorial Seas and AdjacentZones. Regarding disputes over marine issues between China and itsneighboring countries。

Qinhuangdao and other coastal cities are nowmaking efforts to use more seawater directly as industrial chilled waterand non-potable water, marineexploration and resources exploitation,000 tons. In addition, development and dissemination of thetechnologies of marine reproduction and mariculture, is a basic component of the globaal bio-support system. It isalso a treasure house of resources and an important regulator of theenvironment. It is inevitable that the development of human society willcome to depend more and more on the ocean. In the coming 21st century mankind will have newopportunities to develop and utilize the ocean. Upholding the principlesof the international marine law as defined by the United NationsConvention on the Law of the Sea, stressing marine characteristics, but the amountper capita is less than half the figure per capita worldwide. As a majordeveloping country with a long coastline。

coveringgulfs。

the TOGA(tropical ocean and global atmospheric project),technology and qualified personnel into seabed exploration,000 square nautical miles. The shallow seas andtidelands have a total area of 13.33 million ha, which further advancesthe three major policies of ``putting prevention first, China makesthe prevention and control of land-sourced pollution the focal point ofits marine environmental protection work. A series of regulations havebeen drawn up to check land-sourced pollutant emission。

the Chinese government shall, including the United States, China shall。


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